### Calculating with numbers: Computing with integers

### Divisors, prime numbers, and prime factorisations

When the remainder of a division with remainder is zero, then we say that the division terminates. For example, \(156:13=12\). The we have \(156=12\times 13\). Also, the division \(156:13\) terminates and has the outcome \(12\). The numbers \(12\) and \(13\) are **divisors** of \(156\) and the relation \(156=12\times 13\) is called a **decomposition into factors.**

From these two divisors, \(12\) can be decomposed into factors, namely \(12=3\times 4\). So \(156=3\times 4\times 13\). We can go one step further and factorise \(4\) as \(4=2\times 2=2^2\). You cannot decompose the number \(256\) into more factors because each number \(2\), \(3\) and \(13\) is only divisible by \(1\) and the number itself. The numbers \(2\), \(3\) and \(13\) are called **prime numbers** , **primes** in short, and factorisation \(156=2^2\times 3\times 13\) is called a **prime factorisation** of \(156\). You see in this example that it is also good practice to collect primes that occur more than once and write them as power. We call \(2\), \(3\) and \(13\) the **prime factors** of the number \(156\).

Prime number

A prime number, or a prime, is a natural number with exactly two divisors.

All prime numbers less than thirty are: \(2\), \(3\), \(5\), \(7\), \(11\), \(13\), \(17\), \(19\), \(23\) and \(29\).\(\phantom{x}\)

The following theorem illustrates that you can consider primes as the building blocks of the natural numbers.

Prime factorisation

Every natural number greater than \(1\) can be written as a product of a finite number of primes.

This so-called prime factorization is unique, up to the ordering of the factors.

*Examples* \[\begin{aligned}30&=2\times 3\times 5\\ \\ 40&=2\times 2\times 2\times 5\\&=2^3\times 5\end{aligned}\]

There exist mathematical algorithms that can compute the prime factorisation of a natural number. But generally, the finding of prime factors of a number and the building up of a prime factorisation of a number via pencil-and-paper is hard work. You do this by systematically trying out larger prime divisors. Whenever you find a prime divisor, divide by it, and proceed with the quotient. You are ready when you end up with a quotient that is prime.

\(242=2\times 11^2\)

Try first to divide by the smallest prime divisor, namely \(2\).

Dat lukt hier want \(242=2\times 121\). Ga nu verder met het ontbinden van \(121\).

Zowel \(2\) als \(3\) is geen priemdeler van \(121\). De eerstvolgende priemdeler is \(11\) want \(121=11\times 11\).

Verder is \(11\) een priemgetal.

The process ends here with a prime and so we are ready with the prime factorisation of \(242\): \[242=2\times 11^2\]

In summery, the calculation process is as follows: \[\begin{aligned} 242&=\blue{2}\times 121\\ 121&=\blue{11}\times \blue{11}\end{aligned}\] The blue numbers \(2\), \(11\), and \(11\) are the three prime factors of \(242\).